2021-02-12 | 7 minutes reading

Howto proxy your self-hosted services using web server

Many services available for self-hosting provide promised functionality, but let you take care of security and/or authentication. These are the cases when web server comes to the rescue with its ability to create a layer between internet and your service, which will provide additional features like authentication, upgrade to https with valid certificate, DoS prevention using fail2ban, or ability to communicate with service using custom (sub)domain. These features were explained in the previous article.

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2021-02-12 Howto proxy your self-hosted services using web server
2021-01-08 Howto setup and secure web server
2020-12-30 Services you can selfhost on you personal Linux VPS
2020-09-22 Howto secure your personal Linux VPS
2020-08-21 Howto setup your personal Linux VPS

The basics

The theory is simple. There is your self-hosted service listening on some (most likely high) port. This port is open to the public internet so you can connect and communicate with the service. We will block this port from public visibility using firewall and then create new virtual host on your web server. In case of apache or nginx it will be new file in /etc/[nginx|apache2]/sites-available/. Don't forget to enable the file by creating a symlink to /etc/[nginx|apache2]/sites-enabled and reload the web server. We are going to proxy, so the important part of the file for us is the 'location' section. We are not going to define the root clause where the web application exists on the file system like usual, but we are going to define 'proxy_pass' atribute that basicaly says, that all the traffic coming to this location should be forwarded to the value of the 'proxy_pass' attribute. And of course, everything what comes back will be forwarded back to the client. There are other attributes that configure and alternate this default logic. Let's have a look on such configuration example (nginx):

Example proxy configuration

location / {
  proxy_pass_header       Server; 
  proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-For    $remote_addr; 
  proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-Proto  "https"; 
  proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-Host   $host; 
  proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-By     $server_addr:$server_port; 
  proxy_connect_timeout   300;
  proxy_send_timeout      300;
  send_timeout            300;    
  keepalive_timeout       300; 
  proxy_http_version      1.1;
  proxy_pass    ;

Let's go over the configuration details to check what is going on:


If you want to add an authentication to your newly proxied self-hosted service, just add 2 more configuration options:

auth_basic                     "password is required";
auth_basic_user_file           /etc/nginx/htpasswd-file-for-service;

Now you have enabled 'http basic' authentication. User will have to provide login and password to continue through the proxy. The 'htpasswd-file-for-service' is a plain text file with the login:password tuples. It should have htpasswd format. Generation of such file is easy, just call:

htpasswd -c /etc/nginx/htpasswd-file-for-service peter 

If you already have a centralised user database and you want to use it instead of static file, it is possible using additional web server modules. For example, nginx has support for mysql or ldap.

Finalized example

So the final virtual host file may look like the one below.

  1. First we are defining server section for HTTP over port 80 and automatically redirecting traffic to HTTPS over 443
  2. Then enabling ssl and pointing to the necessary certificate, key and certificate authority files
  3. Defining a location segment where we configure proxy
  4. We let the web server take care of authentication using http basic and our newly generated htpasswd file
server {
    listen                       80;
    server_name                  servicex.mizik.sk;
    return                       301 https://$host$request_uri;

server { listen 443; server_name servicex.mizik.sk; charset utf-8;

ssl                          on;
ssl_certificate              /etc/letsencrypt/live/servicex.mizik.sk/fullchain.pem;
ssl_certificate_key          /etc/letsencrypt/live/servicex.mizik.sk/privkey.pem;
ssl_dhparam                  /etc/nginx/ssl/dhparams.pem;

location / { proxy_pass http://localhost:18000/; proxy_pass_header Server; proxy_set_header X-Script-Name /; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for; proxy_set_header X-Remote-User $remote_user; auth_basic "password for servicex is required"; auth_basic_user_file /etc/nginx/htpasswd-servicex; }


Remember, that you can define multiple 'location' sections, therefore you can have 'location /' for static web page and 'location /comments' where you will proxy to some self-hosted commenting solution. This will make it nice and clean and also you will workaround cross site and CSP issues.


Using this simple setup you will get unified and standardized access to your self-hosted services. They will look the same from the outside until user will get through the authentication to the specific API of the service. Check other web server modules to find out which other features may be globally applied to you self-hosted service APIs.

tags: VPS, Linux, Self-host